An indirect quotation is one where paraphrasing has been used to acknowledge the ideas of the author.
When you paraphrase, you re-express the ideas of another in your own words. Quotation marks are not used, when paraphrasing, but you do acknowledge the author, the year of publication and the pages, if applicable. You can do this by including any part of this information within your own text and then placing the parts of the reference not included in parentheses, but within the same sentence. See the two example below.
Direct quotation - within the text
The basic requirements are the author, date of publication and, if using a print text, the page reference. This is placed in parentheses (brackets) immediately after the quotation, but within the same sentence. NOTE: The period, ending the sentence, is outside the brackets.
Direct quotation - Short or Long quotations
There are different conventions depending on whether the quotation is short or long
According to Gibbs (1981, p. 42) "a large part of examination performance is nothing to do with what students understand about subject matter." This being the case, it is important that education administrators re-assess the role of examinations in the education system.
It seems evident that "a large part of examination performance is nothing to do with what students understand about subject matter" (Gibbs, 1981, p. 42). This being the case ...
If the author, date of publication or pages are not referred to in the text of your writing, they should be included with the quotation.
In discussing different approaches used by students in their learning Mathias (1978) points out that there can be no simple explanation for the differences found:
These behaviours did not represent static mental characteristics of students fixed in time, but rather could vary over time as the student moved through his course. It seemed more likely that a combination of factors were at work whose interaction and behavioural product was mediated through some process of interpretation on the part of the student. (p. 148)
Inserting text into a quotation: use square brackets to indicate the text does not come form the original author. This is sometimes useful to show the context of the quotation.
Omitting text from a quotation:
Use of page numbers:
|"Both Miles Franklin and Joseph Furphy rejected indignantly the orthodox Victorian romance" (Moore, 1971, p. 176)
Date: If you cannot establish the date of publication use n.d. (no date) Caution should be exercised when using a resource without a publication date.
If two or more works by the same author are cited at the same time, do not repeat the author’s name. Separate the years of publication by a comma.
If there are more than two works by the same author, published in the same year, add the letters ‘a’, ‘b’, etc. to the year to distinguish the works. Also add these letters to the year in the list of references at the end of the essay.
If there are more than three authors, list only the first, followed by ‘et al’ in the in-text citation, but use the full list of names in the end-text reference.