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LIBRARY: In-text/End-text Referencing

End-text References

End-text references are also referred to as a "List of References" or a "Bibliography"

ALL condensed in-text references are to be recorded in full detail at the end of the text. An example of the format for a full end-text reference, is shown below:

Moore, T. (1971). Social pattern in Australian Literature. Sydney. Angus & Robertson.


  • List references/citations alphabetically by the author's last name, or by the title, if an author is not available.
  • Use single spacing within the citation, but double spacing between each citation.
  • Indent the second line of a citation, so that the author's name is clearly identifiable.
  • Punctuation is important and the correct format must be included. See rules for Version 6 APA Style.
  • The title should be underlined, if handwritten, or Italicized (slanted writing) if typed. If the title includes a title of another work, it should be distinguished by quotation marks. 
  • The year of publication is very important and should appear immediately after the authors name, in parentheses (brackets).
  • When citing electronic information, ensure that the full web address is used and that it will successfully take the reader to the site used. CAUTION: Ensure the information has an attributable author and that the information is not subject to change (e.g. Wikipedia). The credibility of the website should be checked before use.
  • The URL's included are not underlined; that is, they are not live hypertext links. Most essays or assignments are handed in as hard copies so there is no need for live links. However, your word processor may automatically underline URL's, so you need to turn this off when preparing end-text references. 

Example: Bibliography


Australian Government Geoscience Australia. (2011). Greenhouse gas storage. Retrieved from

Ferrara, M. (2010). Hay fever. In T. Moy (Ed.), Human diseases and conditions (943-946). Detroit, Gale. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library.

Forces of nature. (2010, June 1). The West Australian, 4-5, Retrieved from The West Australian Archive: Digital Editions.

Henderson, R. (2010). Heart disease, Netdoctor. Retrieved from

Huisman, J. (2011). Northern exposure: marine life of the Kimberley. Landscope,Vol. 26 (No. 4), 10-16.

Likens, G. (2006). Pollution of water. In The World Book Encyclopedia (Vol. 21, 136-139). Chicago: World Book.

The emperor's secret garden [Digital video]. (2016, March 27). Sydney: SBS Television. Retrieved from Clickview.